If you ask a professional photographer, what are the most important skills in photography? Everyone will answer you - must be the use of light, mainly divided into "soft light and hard light" and "light source location", "light intensity" and "color temperature". To master more photographic skills, the first step is to understand the effect of these four elements and the principle behind them. Today we introduce 10 related small. Tips.
1 The wider the light source, the softer the light.
On the contrary. Wide sources of light can soften shadows, reduce contrast and soften the texture of the subject, while narrower sources are the opposite. The principle behind this is that the wider the light source is, the more direction the light diffuses on the object, which makes the scene brighter and reduces the intensity of the shadows.
Tip: Make good use of natural light, you can arrange the portrait subject next to a large and bright window which is not directly exposed to sunlight. The window can play the effect of a soft light box. You can also get the effect of a soft light testicle without a studio lamp.
2. The nearer the light source is, the softer the light will be.
On the contrary. The principle is that the closer the light source is to the object, the larger and more dispersed the light source is to the object; the farther the light source is from the object, the smaller and narrower the light source is. Take sunlight for example. The diameter of the sun is 109 times that of the earth. It should have been a very broad source of light. But the sun is 93 million kilometers away from the earth and only a small part of our sky, so when sunlight shines directly on objects on sunny days, the light will be very hard.
Tip: If you shoot indoors with a studio lamp, you can control the softness of light by changing the distance between the light source and the subject.
3. Flexible masks make light broader and softer
Take the cloud as an example. The principle is that when clouds block the sun, the shadow of the object being illuminated becomes less obvious. And when the clouds get thicker, the shadows even disappear. Clouds and fog disperse light around them. In cloudy and foggy days, the light source becomes very wide and unconcentralized, and the air in the sky is like a giant soft light box, softening the sunlight.
Tip: Translucent plastic or white textile materials can be used to soften the strong light. You can add a soft mask to an artificial light source, such as a shadow building lamp, or use a soft canopy or a soft box to soften the light in bright sunlight.
4. Softening light with reflection
When a very narrow beam of light is shined on a large, low-reflective surface (such as ground glass, such as walls, plastic reflective panels), the light will be scattered to a wider area in the process of reflection. However, if some reflectivity is high, such as aluminium paper or mirrors, the light will still be very concentrated after being reflected, unable to play a softening role.
Tip: If you knead the aluminium paper (which you buy in the supermarket and use in the oven) into a ball, spread out the light and wrap it on a cardboard, you can get a special reflective board! This self-made reflector can add sparkling light to the subject.
5. The farther the light source is, the darker the subject is.
Is that common sense? Light decays rapidly as the light source moves away. If the light is refracted, its travel distance will increase, and the reflected light will not be as strong as the direct light.
Tip: In bad weather days, when shooting portraits outdoors, flash should be used, which can eliminate the shadows of the face, and will not affect the exposure value of the background. Because the light emitted by the flash is not strong enough to affect the background luminosity.
6. Use the intensity of light to make the subject more prominent than the background.
If the light is close to the subject, the intensity between the subject and the background will be more obvious; if the light is far from the subject, the background will be lightened accordingly, and the subject will not be so prominent.
Tip: If the front light of the subject is shot through the window, and the subject is close to the window, the background will be dimmed. If you want to make the indoor background brighter, you should keep the main body away from the window and the background.
7. Frontal light can weaken the texture of the subject, while side light, top light and bottom light can enhance the texture of the subject.
Portrait photographers usually direct the light source to the face of the subject, so that the wrinkles of the subject are not so prominent. Landscape photographers prefer to use sidelights to enhance the texture of rocks, sandstones and leaves. Generally speaking, the larger the oblique angle between the direction of light and the object, the more obvious the texture of the subject.
Tip: If you want to photograph your pet's furry hair, you'd better drop the light source from the side, which is better than using the front light source, which can make the hair more obvious.
8 Shadows make the subject more stereoscopic
Shadow is a photographer's way of making the subject more stereoscopic in a flat photograph. Side light, top light and bottom light can cast deep shadows on objects, thus creating a stereoscopic sense. Still life, business and landscape photographers like to use different angles of light to create different atmosphere and effects.
Tip: You can try Holly Lighting to shoot full dramatic portraits! The method is to place the top light just above the main body and slightly offset the position, then adjust the light angle, so that the shadow of the character's nose falls on the position slightly below the human body.
9 Backlight can be used as a soft light source
Very few subjects are illuminated by backlight alone. If a person stands in front of a bright window, part of the light reflected from the wall facing him falls on him. If a person is outdoors, even if the background is bright sunlight, the front will also have light from the sky. You can use a reflector to reflect back light back to the subject to increase its exposure.
10 Rays are coloured.
Although sometimes light looks like "colorless", we call the color of light color color color temperature. It's just that our eyes and brains adjust and sense automatically, making it difficult for us to detect. But digital cameras and films record colors that we can't see. The sunshine in the morning and evening has warm hues, while the shadows cast by the sunshine at noon are very blue. For digital cameras, you can use white balance to eliminate or emphasize the color of light. For example, it can add warm tones in scenery or portrait photographs.
Tip: Photos taken on sunny days, especially the shadows, will be very blue. Setting the camera's white balance to cloudy days can add golden color to the photos, which is equivalent to adding a warm color filter in front of the lens.